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Federation Bungalow c. 1890—c. 1915
|The principles of the Arts and Crafts movement
which grew up in Britain around William Morris in the second half of the
nineteenth century were strongly promoted in America by Gustav Stickley in
The Craftsman, the influential magazine he founded in 1901 and published
until 1916. The journal featured designs for houses, gardens and furniture,
all of which were notable for the homespun charm and lack of pretension. The
style of a ‘Craftsman Home’, Stickley claimed, sprang ‘from the needs of the
plain people’ and was based upon ‘the simplest and most direct principles of
construction’. Stickley’s ideas formed the basis for the bungalow movement
which swept America in the early twentieth century.
The word bungalow is derived from bangla, meaning ‘a Bengali house’. In the early days of the British Raj in India, a bungalow was understood to be a single-storey house with commodious verandas, but by the end of the nineteenth century the word was comfortable bungalow. Regurgitations of articles in American magazines extolling the virtues of the bungalow continued to appear in local publications for the best part of a decade.
The Federation Bungalow style can be regarded as a transition between the FEDERATION QUEEN ANNE and the INTER-WAR CALIFORNIA BUNGALOW styles: it cast off the picturesque complexities of the former and did not display its structural carpentry as much as the latter. Chronologically, the style appears late in the Federation period and flows on into the Inter-War period. The accompanying illustrations show that, while Federation bungalows in this country often vary quite widely from one another in appearance, the definitive examples of the style share the qualities of homely simplicity and robust honesty.
"A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Austrlian Architecture; Styles and Terms from 1788 to the Present"
RICHARD APPERLY, ROBERT IRVING, PETER REYNOLDS. PHOTOGRAPHS BY SOLOMON MITCHELL.
Angus & Robertson Sydney 1995 ISBN 0207 18562 X
Copyright © 1989 by Richard Apperly, Robert Irving and Peter Reynolds.
|Edwardian house, Heidelberg, Victoria|