Sydney Architecture Images-
Gone but not forgotten
|Built- 1836 Demolished- 1961|
|Old Colonial Grecian|
|The exterior stone and sandstone brick walls were up to 70 centimetres thick. Most of the materials used in the house came from the surrounding area. The exceptions were the kauripine floorboards for the ballroom, imported from New Zealand, and the delicate Belgian window glass. The local materials were worked on site; masons carved the stone, and kilns were built to fire the bricks. The exceptionally fine cedar joinery, as well as much of the furniture, was produced in workshops established in the rear courtyards.|
|Summary||The Vineyard was completed in 1836. Designed in the Greek Revival style, the two-storey building presented two main elevations. Along the eastern front, reputed to be a copy of the Petit Trianon in Paris, ran a colonnade supported by sixteen Doric columns, each fashioned from a single stone block. Stone steps led to the six-panelled front door, above which was a finely wrought fanlight. Through the door was the main hall, flanked by two wooden Ionic columns, and from where the main staircase led to the first floor.|
|THE SUBIACO COLUMNS at the University of New South Wales|
In 1836 Hannibal Hawkim Macacthur, nephew of John Macarthur, oversaw the construction of a fine house for his family on the northern bank of the Parramatta River in what is now the Sydney suburb of Rydalmere. It seems likely that the architect was John Verge, who produced some of the finest colonial architecture in early New South Wales. The house, called The Vineyard after the property on which it stood, was an elegant two-storey structure in the Greek Revival style. In 1849 it was purchased by J. B. Polding, the first Roman Catholic Archbishop of Australia, and given to the Benedictine Order. Renamed Subiaco, it became the first boarding school for girls in the colony and remained with the order until 1959. By that time it was almost completely encircled by industrial development. It was sold to a company manufacturing hot water systems and, following a protracted, public battle to save it, was demolished in 1961.
Professor F. E. k. Towndrow was only one of many people concerned with the survival of The Vineyard-Subiaco. In the September 1961 issue of Architecture in Australia he commented on the trend towards demolition: The tragedy is that a country that has so little regard for its past will have little sense for its future. It is the sense of continuity that matters. Where there is no sense of continuity, the people perish: They live for the day, the past and future become useless abstractions: there is no money in them: it seems that we in Australia are here today and gone tomorrow. Poor, soulless Australia. Hannibal Hawkins Macarthur was born in 1788 at Plymouth in Devonshire, England. His father was James Macarthur, elder brother of John Macarthur who, by the early nineteenth century, was a man of considerable power in the colony of New South Wales. He had been appointed inspector of public works, served as paymaster for the New South Wales Corps (in which he was a lieutenant) and had obtained a number of large land grants. The earliest was almost 40 hectares at Parramatta where he built Elizabeth Farm House. By the mid-1790s he was one of the largest landowners in the colony; ten years later his reputation as a leading pastoralist was fully established. His influence also occasioned him to meddle in public affairs and in 1801 he wounded his commanding officer, William Paterson, in a duel and was sent to England for trial. So far from the scene of the incident, Macarthur eluded the charge and spent most of his time in England arranging business affairs, particularly the promotion of his wool trade.
Macarthur resigned from the New South Wales Corps and obtained documents granting him over 2000 hectares immediately with a similar area forthcoming. He left England in 1804 aboard the Argo, accompanied by Hannibal, who John considered would be useful in assisting him with his expanding commercial enterprises.
Hannibal managed his uncle's wool interests, especially during the period when John was in exile in England for his involvement in the overthrow of Governor Bligh, but gradually established himself in his own right. In 1813 Hannibal purchased the property known as The Vineyard. The original grant of 54 hectares was made to Philip Schaffer by Governor Phillip on 30 March 1791. The deed was signed on 22 February 1792; it was the fourth land grant to be made in New South Wales. The deed noted that the area "to be known by the name of the Vineyard laying on the North side of the Creek leading to Parrarriatta" be free from "all Taxes, Quit Rents and other acknowledgements" for a period of five years provided that Schaffer "shall reside within the same, and proceed to the Improvement and Cultivation thereof'.
Born in Hesse, Germany, Schaffer was a lieutenant in a force of British-commanded Yaghers who fought as mercenaries in the American War of Independence. He came to Australia in 1790 aboard Lady Juliana, after his original transport, HMS Guardian, was wrecked off the Cape of Good Hope. Schaffer had been appointed superintendent of convicts but he soon turned to farming. He received rations from the government stores as well as the labour of five convicts. By the end of 1791 he had 5 hectares planted with maize and half a hectare each of wheat and tobacco. By October the following year he area of maize had more than doubled and a large area was planted with vines, almost rivalling the vineyards in the governor's gardens at Parramatta.
The convicts included in the government assistance granted to Schaffer helped to build a brick house that became the nucleus of The Vineyard-Subiaco estate of later years. It was a long low cottage in the style that later became identified as the traditional Australian homestead. A veranda ran along the main western front, which was constructed of sandstock bricks; locally quarried stone formed the material for the rear of the cottage. Building activity in the colony, however, was suffering through the lack of lime, an important ingredient for a strong bonding mortar. Lime had not been found in significant quantities in the 1790s and the small amount recovered by burning shells collected by convicts was reserved for official building. The mortar in The Vineyard cottage was principally clay, possibly with the inclusion of horsehair or grass to strengthen the bond. Despite this, the farmhouse withstood the years, and it took twentieth-century technology, in the form of a final bulldozer, to bring it down.
In 1794 Schaffer received a grant of 24 hectares at the Field of Mars (now Ryde), and in the following year rented The Vineyard to Captain Henry Waterhouse. Waterhouse had arrived with the First Fleet as an officer aboard HMS Sirius. In1796 he sailed with HMS Supply and Reliance to gather stock from the Cape of Good Hope, where he and another officer, Lieutenant Kent, purchased a number of Spanish merino sheep. The price was high, £4 each, but on this transaction rested the establishment of the fine merino wool industry in Australia. On the return voyage, all of the sheep purchased by Kent perished, but well over half of Waterhouse's stock survived. On docking, they were brought up the Parramatta River and landed at The Vineyard's pier. Waterhouse bred the sheep with great success, and sold a number of his finest animals to the colony's leading citizens, including John Macarthur and Reverend Samuel Marsden. Waterhouse had purchased TheVineyard from Schaffer, but he eventually returned to England, William Cox obtaining the remainder of his flock. It is possible that in the period between the departure of Waterhouse and the purchase of The Vineyard by Macarthur, the farm became the temporary home of Gregory Blaxland, one of three explorers who found a way across the Blue Mountains in 1813. In that year, when the fertile western plains were for the first time accessible, Hannibal Hawkins Macarthur paid £160 for The Vineyard. In a letter to his uncle, dated 3 July, Hannibal advised: "I have purchased as a place of Residence Waterhouse's Farm". At 24 years of age he had almost a decade of experience in managing his uncle's affairs, overseeing the merino flocks at Parramatta and Camden while John was exiled in England. Hannibal's extraneous duties eased with the return of his uncle in 1817. He concentrated on his own affairs, rapidly rising in prominence in the community, due in no small part to the family name. He served on the committee of the Female Orphan School, was a director of the Bank of New South Wales in the late 1820s and, in 1830, became a full member of the Legislative Council. In 1812 Hannibal had married Anna Maria, daughter of Philip Gidley King, the third governor of New South Wales. During the 1820s, as their family increased, the accommodation that had served Schaffer and Waterhouse so well became far too cramped. About that time Hannibal's overseer, Robert Dunn, appearing before Commissioner Bigge, reported that Hannibal had in total over 320 hectares with 50 hectares under cultivation. Seven convicts were assigned to work The Vineyard. The family's position in society required a suitable dwelling and Hannibal's choice of John Verge as architect was in keeping with the Macarthur tradition of that time. For John Macarthur, Verge had designed Camden Park House, a charming Regency mansion on which construction began in1833; John died the following year and his sons, James and William, became the first occupiers. Of the same period was Lyndhurst, on high land overlooking Blackwattle Bay in what today is Glebe. A slightly less imaginative Georgian residence flanked by verandas and a free interpretation of the neo-Greekstyle, it was designed by Verge for surgeon Dr James Bowman, who had married John Macarthur's daughter, Mary Isabella. On 13 February 1833 Verge made the trip up river from Sydney to fix the site for the house. His ledgers indicate that over the next two months, Verge furnished plans and elevations for the mansion as well as providing a detailed estimate of costs. There is no credit entry in the ledgers under Hannibal's name, but since the house was in the course of erection by mid-1835, it appears likely that Hannibal had decided to proceed with Verge's plan. The issue is slightly clouded by the fact that some of the original plans, held by the Benedictine Sisters in their archives, are signed by James Houison, generally accepted as the builder. These, however, could be just working plans. Many parts of the completed house carry Verge's "signature", particularly the cantilevered main stone staircase, a favourite device of the architect and seen to best effect in Elizabeth Bay House built for Alexander Macleay, colonial secretary of New South Wales.
The Vineyard was completed in 1836. Designed in the Greek Revival style, the two-storey building presented two main elevations. Along the eastern front, reputed to be a copy of the Petit Trianon in Paris, ran a colonnade supported by sixteen Doric columns, each fashioned from a single stone block. Stone steps led to the six-panelled front door, above which was a finely wrought fanlight. Through the door was the main hall, flanked by two wooden Ionic columns, and from where the main staircase led to the first floor.
Three doors opened off the hall. To the left was the dining room, which led through an anteroom to the ballroom, running the length of the southern facade facing the Parramatta River. To the right of the hallway was the study. The remaining principal rooms of the ground floor were arranged in a rough L shape. Tall French windows ran along the eastern and southern terraces, and external and internal shutters provided a measure of security.
There were eight large and three smaller bedrooms on the first floor; a balcony was added along its eastern façade in 1868-69. A second flight of stairs, also cantilevered, was located at the northeast end of the house. The basement was serviced by both internal and external stairways. There were wine cellars along the eastern side, reached by an entrance from the southern carriage drive, and two large cold stores along the northern side. Ventilation shafts angling down from the outside walls kept the cellars dry.
The exterior stone and sandstone brick walls were up to 70 centimetres thick. Most of the materials used in the house came from the surrounding area. The exceptions were the kauripine floorboards for the ballroom, imported from New Zealand, and the delicate Belgian window glass. The local materials were worked on site; masons carved the stone, and kilns were built to fire the bricks. The exceptionally fine cedar joinery, as well as much of the furniture, was produced in workshops established in the rear courtyards.
The Macarthur family settled into their new home with the confidence born of prominence and the desire to retain it. They entertained lavishly. Most of the colony's leading citizens were guests Samuel Marsden was one, Edward Hamilton, brother of the Bishop of Salisbury, another. Ludwig Leichhardt made frequent visits; Emmeline Macarthur (later de Falbe), the fifth of Hannibal's seven daughters, recalled in her journals that as Leichhardt left The Vineyard on his ill-fated second expedition, she wished him God-speed. Patrick Leslie, who opened up the Darling Downs to settlement and studied farming methods with the Macarthurs, left his name etched in a window in Schaffer's house; it remained there until the estate's last day. Explorer Sir Paul Edmund de 'Strzelecki frequently stayed at the mansion. James Macarthur, eldest son of Hannibal, accompanied Strzelecki on the 1840 expedition that climbed and named Mount Kosciusko. When Sir Charles Fitz Roy arrived in Australia in 1846 to take office as governor, he and his wife, Lady Mary,stayed at The Vineyard until Government House was ready foroccupation.
The sight of The Vineyard in the midst of a garden party would have been one of the more inspiring scenes of early Sydney- a still summer evening, liveried servants attending the guests in the 10 metre long dining room, members of the regimental band playing gently on the terrace beyond the French windows. These parties often continued until the early hours of the morning and, many guests stayed overnight. Breakfast was served at 8 o'clock, in time to catch the Sydney-bound steamer, which passed the wharf at 9 o'clock.
Emmeline, who was born in 1828, remembered The Vineyard as a large property 15 miles [24 kilometres] from Sydney bounded on one side by a tidal river, navigable for small steamers and on the other side extensive forests, chiefly composed of gum trees, and a good sized farm house with cultivated fields, and out-buildings three-quarters of a mile [about one kilometre] from the house. Large gardens, and in the heart of the forest, a semi-circular terraced vineyard, with a stream at the foot, bordered with ferns and mimosa, a lovely spot.
We lived three miles [ 5 kilometres] by road from a village called Parramatta, one mile [1.5kilometres] through fields by crossing a river. The summer residence of the Governor was at Parramatta. Most of the supplies came from England. Dresses and haberdashery were chosen by Hannibal's sisters and shipped to Australia, while Hannibal had the latest books and magazines forwarded from Richardson's of London. "Tea came direct in chests from William Leslie in Canton with many other goodthings, ginger, coffee and chocolate", Emmeline's journal tells us, while dairy produce came from the farm as did the meat, fresh from Macarthur's own stock. The cellars were stocked with wine in casks lined up in rows along the walls. Port, sherry and marsala were tapped; local beer was available from Parramatta, although supplies were also imported from England. We used standard lamps; a branch chandelier in the dining room and figures in alcoves on the stairs held lamps, burning whale oil from the South Sea whalers. Candles in silver branches ordinarily used with tall glass shades, to keep off draughts, and moths (Indian fashion). Wax candles came from England, excellent tallow candles were made at home, as we had plenty of bees wax.
Outside, the Macarthur children led a uniquely privileged life. Rabbits, possums and parrots became much loved pets. The children had a particular favourite, a white cockatoo, which was ultimately banished from the house for its disagreeable habit of chewing through lead water pipes. There were guineafowls in abundance. Peacocks wandered the lawns, their opalescent tail feathers providing a splash of colour amidst the sylvan green. One of Emmeline's earliest recollections was "of being led by a great Newfoundland dog, 'Watch' was the name, my hand in his mouth to meet my Father as he disembarked at the little jetty on his return by water from Sydney".
Emmeline remembered her maternal grandmother King placing the foundation stone of the mansion. In later years Mrs King lived at The Vineyard with a personal staff consisting of a coachman, boy and maid. She had her own stable and coach. Mrs King was a "handsome, tall, stately old lady with beautiful hair dressed high under a tulle cap and a row of sausage shaped curls of false hair in front a la mode . . . generally wearing an embroidered apron, and some white lace or embroidery on her shoulders. Quite a picture".
Another contemporary report of life at The Vineyard during Hannibal Macarthur's occupation is supplied by Lieutenant Colonel Godfrey Charles Mundy. In his Our Antipodes: or Residences and Rambles in the Australasian Colonies, he recalled travelling with Sir Charles FitzRoy and party in November 1846:A very thirsty drive of fifteen miles brought us to the town of Parramatta, where of more anon; where, crossing the river by a handsome stone bridge and descending its left bank about two miles, we came to Vineyard, the residence of Mr H. M. at which place we were to remain two nights. The house is large and better constructed for a hot climate than the majority of the Sydney dwellings. It is prettily situated on a bend of the river, with a spacious lawn- not green, but brown,at this season- in front, beautiful gardens, orangeries and vineyards, ,all bounded by the dense forest or bush. Here our party was most hospitably treated. What with driving, riding, boating and bathing in the morning;feasting, singing and dancing in the evening, the rosy and somewhat sultry hours flew as fast as they conveniently could, the range of the thermometer, between 80° and 90° [between 27° and 32°C] being taken into consideration.
The proprietor of the Vineyard . . . is, moreover, the father of a numerous family, who may well be cited as one of the most favourable specimens of the "Currency" race. At a later period of my stay in the colony, Mr H. went to reside in the interior, and his pretty and cheerful place, falling into the hands of the Roman Catholic hierarchy, was converted into a convent -worldly and to my eyes, a most melancholy change.
The change Mundy referred to occurred during the depression of the early 1840s. The Bank of Australia crashed and Hannibal's fortunes followed suit. Although by this time his ·land holdings had increased considerably, he lost most of them. The Vineyard property was mortgaged in October 1843 to the Australian Trust Company for £5000, and within days he took out a second mortgage to Phillip Parker King and Thomas Icely for a further £5000. The estate was eventually sequestrated in June 1848.
On 13 July auctioneer Edward Salamon officiated over the sale of the furnishings and effects of The Vineyard. The catalogue gives a valuable insight into the lifestyle of a wealthy colonial family. The drawing room was furnished with a mahogany table, eleven morocco-covered chairs, a chintz-covered couch, a rosewood chiffonier with marble top, and inlaid Pembroke table, a pianoforte in a mahogany cabinet from Broadwood and Sons of England, a case of preserved Indian birds, two small Chinese tables and a backgammon board. Onthe walls there were watercolours by Conrad Martens as well as five views of Arthursleigh Estate, England, the name Hannibal borrowed for his property on the Wollondilly River. Illumination came from a bronzed three-light hanging lamp. The auction progressed through the house and eventually concluded in the farm buildings at the rear. These later lots included 5 tonnes of hay, a draughthorse by the name of Tinker, another called Dragon, fourteen cows, two horses, a bull, three bullocks, two pigs, three heifers and a steer.
On 24 July, beginning at 11.00 a.m., the contents of Hannibal Macarthur's library were disposed of. These included thirteen volumes of Hume and Smollet's History of England, seven volumes of Napier's History of the Peninsular Wars, forty-seven volumes of Sir Walter Scott, six volumes of The Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin, London's Encyclopaedia of Architecture and Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, six volumes of Moliere, five volumes of Racine and ten volumes of Rousseau: in all, the type of library expected of a well-educated colonial aristocrat. Hannibal retired to Ipswich, Queensland, but the death of his wife, Anna, in 1852 influenced him to return to England, where he died in 1861.The Australian Trust Company leased The Vineyard to Thomas Icely for a period of three years at an annual rental of £200 . He had an option to purchase the estate at the end of the three years for £4000, but was persuaded to sell all rights to the lease for a sum of £1100. The buyer was John Bede Polding, the first Roman Catholic Archbishop of Australia. The penal colony of New South Wales was officially a Church of England settlement and there was considerable government and private feeling that Roman Catholicism should not be allowed to become established. By 1820, however, the increasing numbers of Irish convicts led the Colonial Office to request the Catholic Church to send two Irish Catholic chaplains to Sydney. They were Father Philip Conolly, who soon departed for Van Diemen's Land, and Father John Joseph Therry, whose sole task was to minister to the needs of the Catholics, estimated to number more than 10,000. Working almost alone for ten years, Therry championed the Catholic cause with immense, although often aggressive energy, which more than once severely antagonised the colonial authorities.
By the early 1830.~ there were almost 18,000 Catholics in New South Wales and the demand for further representation could no longer be ignored. In 1832 Australia was removed from the Cape of Good Hope vicariate. Two years later Polding, who had steadily risen in the Benedictine community since his ordination in 1819, was consecrated Archbishop of Australia. He arrived in Australia in September 1835; by the mid-1840s he had twenty-five clergy in his diocese, ministering to 60,000 Catholics of whom only 14,000 were in Sydney. It had been one of Polding's earliest wishes to establish a community of Benedictine nuns in Australia. When it finally became possible to bring the first nuns here, The Vineyard was chosen as their home. By that time the estate was over 280 hectares in area. Polding apportioned 56 hectares, including the house and outbuildings, to the nuns, and renamed it Subiaco in memory of St Benedict's first monastery. The rest of the property; named Monte Cassino, was worked as a farm to support St Mary's Monastery, but did not come up to expectations and was ultimately sold off.
The nuns were to open a school for young ladies. Dame Scholastica Gregory and Dame Magdalen Le Clero took charge of Subiaco on 29 January 1849, together with two choir nuns and three lay sister postulants. The novitiate opened on the Feast of the Purification on 2 February. Until the school was established, Polding funded Subiaco. In return the nuns undertook a variety of duties for the community of St Mary's, making and repairing clothing and laundering the altar linen of the cathedral that was then taking shape across from Hyde Park.
The work was hard and The Vineyard, which once played host to explorers and politicians and a long succession of garden parties, was now a quiet, contemplative retreat, its ballroom a chapel. By a strange twist of fate, Polding also acquired the Bowman family home, Lyndhurst, which was used as a Benedictine school until 1878.
The school at Subiaco opened in March 1851 with two pupils. It prospered for a few years, but with the opening of similar convent schools at Bathurst and Maitland, pupils were lured away by extravagant claims of facilities. Dame Scholastica had died in October 1850- the first of the community to be buried in the monastery's graveyard - but Dame Hawthornwaite, who arrived in 1851, had extensive teaching experience in England and France. At its peak, attendance rarely went beyond forty pupils, yet the school commanded great respect. Finance was a continual problem. Pupils were often accepted for far below the standard fees; Polding himself contributed to the situation by placing at Subiaco the daughters of newly converted gentlemen convicts, generally men of limited financial means. At the beginning of 1870, there were only thirteen pupils, perhaps as a result of competition from the seven other convent schools. Subiaco nevertheless survived for another fifty years. The Town and Country Journal took its readers on a tour of the convent in March 1893 and made it sound both attractive and prosperous.
The grounds, which comprised about 160 acres [65hectares], are very pleasantly laid out in gardens, lawns, shrubberies, a large tennis court, &c. Shady avenues, orchards, knots of bush lands, &c, are to be met with on this magnificent estate. Through the vistas of ornamental trees, shrubberies, &c, glimpses and pretty peeps of the river are discernible. A large number of cows, poultry, pigs, &c, are kept, and this monastery has, therefore, all the charm of farm life, with the still more practical benefit of an ever bountiful supply of fresh provisions for its lady boarders. The fresh, ruddy complexions of the latter testify to the good treatment and fresh air which are here en joyed. The health of the pupils is ordinarily so perfect that a doctor is almost an entire stranger. Owing to the salubrity of the situation even the most delicate of the children from Queensland, South Australia, the Northern Territory, and other colonies where the heat is so debilitating improve most wonderfully in a short time. When influenza and typhoid were raging all round the district and colonies generally, Subiaco, owing to its isolated position (it is all but an island), enjoyed an entire immunity from these epidemics.
After describing the main building, the journal examined the convent's facilities:
There is an immense school room excellently fitted up. Besides this there are class rooms, music rooms, library, two oratories, infirmary, the largest and best laundry (of its kind) in Australia, furnished most completely, and fitted up with rollers, &c, thus providing for the drying of clothes in wet weather. There is an immense kitchen, with an extensive range. There is also a bakehouse, with its dough machine, and here the whitest and sweetest of bread is turned out. The refectory is a bright, airy apartment, the windows being decorated with pot plants and flowers. The dormitories are simply perfection. No better lighted or ventilated sleeping apartments could be found anywhere. From the balcony a magnificent view is obtainable.
With the promulgation of a new code of canon law, which reached Australia in 1917 - 18, directions on the enclosure of nuns became more defined . Following this, and the continuing decline in students, it was decided to close the school at the end of 1921. The Benedictine sisters remained at Subiaco until 195 7when they moved to a new monastery at West Pennant Hills. Subiaco passed into the hands of the Sylvestrine Fathers, a branch of the Benedictine Order, who retained the property for only three years.
By the late 1950s Subiaco faced almost certain destruction. The 280 hectares that Polding had purchased in 1848 had shrunk by a series of subdivisions to just "3 acres 3 roods and 20 perches" ( 1. 5 hectares) in a now industrial area. An aerial photograph of the region, taken in 1960, shows Subiaco locked in by factories, although retaining its frontage to the now polluted Parramatta River. The land was far more valuable than the historical significance. A neighbouring factory, Rheem (Australia) Pty Ltd, manufacturers of hot water systems, had an eye on expansion. The offer Rheem made for Subiaco was, as an economic proposition, just too good to refuse. Opposition rallied . Newspapers and magazines ran articles on the impending demolition. Supporters waved copies of a 1949 report by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects that listed Subiaco in its highest category of historic buildings, recommended to be retained at any cost. For a short time a rumour circulated that Subiaco would be dismantled and rebuilt in a more salubrious location. It proved false: there was no money for such an ambitious plan. The state government was not interested and the National Trust in New South Wales did not yet have sufficient influence to halt demolition. All it could manage was a final, parting gesture - by courtesy of Rheem, the National Trust opened Subiaco for inspection on two weekends in June 1961. Shortly afterwards the bulldozers went to work.
The cantilevered staircase and a number of other items were donated to the National Trust, while the University of New South Wales received the exterior colonnade, the two interior columns and the main entrance doors. The columns from the colonnade now support the awning where the main walkway joins Science Road. Thousands of students pass by the columns without ever realising their significance. The King's School at North Parramatta purchased the large flagstones from the courtyards.
As a footnote, it is interesting to examine the study of historic buildings initiated by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects in 1949. This document lists buildings under a number of categories, from "A" for "buildings which are architecturally excellent and whose preservation is essential at whatever the cost" to "D" for "buildings which have been considered, but which have been rejected as having little or no architectural merit". Fifty buildings were examined; although the listings were made on a purely architectural basis, it was recognised that conditions for preservation on historical merit would certainly exist and may well override the Institute's own findings. It is a bizarre coincidence that many of the "A" listings, including Subiaco and Bungarribee at Doonside, no longer exist, while the "D" listings include such choices as Vaucluse House,the Mint Building in Macquarie Street, the Mortuary Stationat Redfern, the old Berrima Gaol, Hartley Courthouse, and the Lancer Barracks at Parramatta, all of which are still standing.
Lost Glories: A Memorial to Forgotten Australian Buildings
David Latta, Angus & Robertson, 1986