Sydney Architecture Images-
Gone but not forgotten
|Built 1825 for John Campbell. Demolished 1957 for transmitting station of the Overseas Telecommunications Commission.|
|Rendered brick Stone|
|Summary||was built in 1827 for Colonel John Campbell, NSW Governor's Secretary. It was located on Doonside Road. Purchased by Thomas Icely in 1828, it was unfortunately demolished in 1957, by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission.|
MANSION IS CREAKING UNDER HISTORY
Colonial history and international progress—spanning 130 years of decay and development—are struggling for sup-remacy on a peaceful plain less than 30 miles west of Sydney.
THERE, a few hundred yards from the latest in modern and solid architecture, is one of the earliest colonial mansions, "Bungarribee," now standing like a forlorn ghost, creaking under the burden of history. For "Bungarribee" lies on a750-acre property, near Doonside, on which an international transmitting station of the Overseas Telecommunications Commission is now nearing completion. The future of this vast historic home, built in 1826, is now in the balance. Is it to be preserved as a historical monument, or is it to give way to the demands of our age? Although "Bungarribee" isnow in a state of almost total disrepair, it bears its age proudly with an air of old-world elegance and wistful graciousness. Its fate is now under consideration between the O.T.C., the De-partment of Works, the Royal Australian Historical Society and the Royal Australian Institute of Architects.
RECORDS on the early life of the house are conflicting, except for the fact that it wasbuilt by Major John Campbell, who arrived in Sydney in November, 1821, with his wife and13 children. According to one source, Major Campbell, who had a let-ter of introduction from the Earl of Bathurst to Governor Macquarie, was appointed one of the commissioners for apportioning territory in 1825, and ayear later he began to build "Bungarribee House."In that same year, according to the same source, Mrs. Camp-bell died, and a year later, at the age of 56, Major Campbell, too, was dead, without ever having occupied his house. The estate contained 2,000acres "of excellent land, fenced all round, and 250 acres cleared. "It consisted of four large pad-docks, stock yard and piggery,a garden of eight acres with a large variety of fruit trees, and well watered by two creeks.The house itself consisted of dining and drawing rooms, five bedrooms, "four small rooms in upper storey," a kitchen and servants' quarters, a store, a hamhouse, stables, barns, carpenters and blacksmiths' shops, and "superior barracks for the men."The lot was sold to Thomas Icely, Esq., in October, 1827,for £3,652.
FIVE years later "Bungarribee" changed hands again, Icely having decided to go to England. But there appears to be no record of its new owner. lt is said that among the owners of "Bungarribee" was the famous East india Company, with whom three of Major Campbell's eldest sons had served. The company used "Bungarribee" as a horse depot. Now it stands empty and derelict, with white ants accelerating the ravages of time. All its walls are of lath and plaster, and the graceful timber columns of its verandah were long ago covered by two inches of concrete reinforcement. Crowning it all is the top circular room, with four square french windows overlooking the once beautiful gardens.—M.A.
Most of Australia's lost glories were in the major cities where the continuing demand for prime land has meant that commercial considerations have often overcome the less pressing regard for history. In rural areas, far from the centres of commerce and industry, much of our fine heritage architecture remains. There are exceptions to every rule and the region around Blacktown, to the west of Sydney, can be singled out. In the radius of just a few kilometres stood a number of historic buildings, all of which have been demolished. Amongst these was Veteran Hall, once the home of Lieutenant William. Lawson, who, with Gregory Blaxland and William Charles Wentworth, was one of the first Europeans to find a way across the Blue Mountains and thus open up western New South Wales to settlement.,
Another was Greystanes, built for Lawson's brother, Edward. But perhaps the most interesting was Bungarribee, built in 1825, which had a succession of owners until its demolition in 1958. Each of these houses was interesting, from both architectural and historical points of view, but Bungarribee was the last to go and in many ways its passing signalled the end of the link with colonial Australia in that area. Bungarribee was built for John Campbell; no relation to Robert Campbell of"the Wharf' or his nephew, Robert Campbell Junior of Bligh Street, or indeed to any of the other Campbells whowere prominent in the early days of Sydney.
The first mention of John Campbell occurs in the Sydney Gazette of 24 November 1821.
"The Lusitania, Captain Langdon, made the Derwent River on the 29 ult. also with merchandize. She left England just prior to the Malabar and brings passengers as follows:-John Campbell, Esq., Lady and family ... " Altogether there were thirty-seven passengers onboard and the vessel had made good time from England; it arrived almost a month ahead of the Malabar, which was carrying171 male convicts. The Lusitania left Hobart Town on 18 November 1821 and cleared Sydney Heads on the last day of the month. John Campbell, 50 years old at the time, his wife, Annabella, and their thirteen children, made a large and conspicuous addition to the colony. Military blood ran thick in both Campbell and his wife.
He was at that time a major in the British Army (he was promoted to a colonel in 1823), and the soldiering tradition would be followed by his elder sons: one became Major-General Sir John Campbell, G. B., K. G.,S. I., while another was killed in the First Burmese war in 1824. Annabella Campbell was the daughter of another John Campbell, a colonel in the British Army and one time governor of Fort George in the Caribbean. A brother of Annabella was Lieutenant-General Sir Colin Campbell, who joined the 78thHighlanders in 1802, served under Wellington at Waterloo and was governor of Nova Scotia in 1833-39 and later governor and commander-in-chief of Ceylon. Campbell was soon made to feel at home in Sydney. By the middle of the year following his arrival he had been made a committee member of the Agricultural Society of New South Wales, and was a judge at the early agriculture and stock showings. In 1824 he became a Justice of the Peace in the company of other leading citizens such as D'Arcy Wentworth, Captain John Piper, and his neighbour at Bungarribee, William Lawson.
In August 1825 he was appointed a joint commissioner of Crown lands, serving with John Oxley and William Cordeaux of Leppington. An acknowledged authority on farming, he set about obtaining land. The area to the west of Sydney, around the Prospect district, was suitable for his plans and in March 1822 Campbell, together with a Robert Crawford, advertised in the Sydney Gazette that they had taken the Armady and Milton farms on the Eastern Creek and requested those who had cattle grazing there to move them immediately.
He did not take long to consolidate his holdings. In July 1824 in the Sydney Gazette Campbell announced:
The Governor of this Territory having been pleased to give me a Right to occupy the Land, situate on the Westside of the Nepean River, between the Grose and Emu Plains, known by the name of the Grose Run (except the Grant to Ikin). I hereby give Notice, to all Trespassers thereon, to remove themselves and their Cattle forthwith. Campbell called his Eastern Creek estate Bungarribee, said to mean the burial place of an Aboriginal "king".
The grant was originally part of the government stock reserve, dating from the time of Governor Philip Gidley King. Most of the Rooty Hill-Prospect region had been reserved by the colonial authorities, but with the arrival of Macquarie, and the subsequent sale of a large number of Crown holdings, the area began to develop under private owners. It is probable that there was already a building on the site, for from a nucleus of two rooms, one wattle-and-daub and the other ironbark slab, Campbell began to build his home. He set about clearing the land and obtained a large number of convicts to facilitate this task.
It was not difficult work, but in August, and again in December, convicts deserted their work parties. Campbell attempted to establish the property on a sound commercial basis, although to do this he was forced to borrow heavily from a number of Sydney's prominent merchants. By March 1824 he was being summonsed by Solomon Levey. In September a debt amounting to over £400, on the purchase of cattle, was due to the firm of Raine and Ramsey, ship owners and agents, general merchants and wool brokers. The partnership of Thomas Raine, captain of the Surrey, and David Ramsey, the ship's surgeon, created a company that would possibly have rivalled those of Simeon Lord and of Cooper and Levey, had not the partnership dissolved in 1828. A descendant of Raine founded the real estate business of Raine and Horne. On 15 September 1824 Campbell wrote to John Macarthur of his crisis and appealed for help. Macarthur's reply must not have pleased Campbell for on 20 September he fired off another plea, saying that he had three days to settle the claim or "run the risk of being destroyed".
Campbell's attempts to obtain sheep for Bungarribee appear to have run into similar trouble. In the letter of 15 September he also covered this topic: "I have been trying to persuade Mr Marsden to let me have a few lambs this season two or three score as a beginning could you favour me so far as to let me have a few from you (say an equal amount) I would consider myself in the way of having a flock of that valuable animal soon". Had Campbell's credit or his relations with Macarthur been a little better, and had he obtained sufficient quantities of Captain Waterhouse's fine Cape of Good Hope merino bloodstock, there might have been another founder of the Australian wool industry to consider. Campbell's financial difficulties eased a little, however, when Macarthur, acting for Thomas Potter Macqueen, advanced a mortgage of £800, to be repaid at 8 per cent per annum. Bungarribee, as it took shape during the short years of Campbell's occupation, was a long, low building with a wide, stone-flagged veranda. The drawing room at the end of the building was circular and above it was a round tower and a series of small rooms. In much the same style as the interior doors in the foyer of Verge's The Vineyard, the doors in the two round rooms were curved. French doors from the drawing room led on to the terrace and, in time, the carefully planted gardens presented a thoroughly English character. Some sources contend that the bricks used in Bungarribee's construction were baked on the spot, others that they were ships' ballast.
But when the mansion was demolished in the late 1950s, they were found to be locally made, crafted by convict labourers from local clay. In November 1826 the Sydney Gazette had the unfortunate task of announcing the death of Annabella Campbell:
"At Boongarabee, the seat of John Campbell, Esq., J. P. and Commissioner of Crown Lands, Mrs Campbell, after a severe indisposition. This amiable lady leaves a large and respectable family and very extensive circle of friends to deplore her lamented loss." Campbell remained at Bungarribee until his own death on the evening of Wednesday, 10 October 1827.
The Sydney Gazette in its following edition noted that "A slight scratch in the leg was followed by a mortification, which finally terminated in death". He was buried on the following Friday, beside his wife, in the grounds of St John's Church, Parramatta. In the Sydney Gazette of 18 February 1828, Mr Pritchett, the auctioneer, announced the clearing of John Campbell's estate. The. first auction was held on 15 March at "Bungarabbee on the great Western Road". The stock comprised brood mares, saddle horses and draughthorses, bullocks "well broken in", cows, heifers and steers, sheep, pigs and a large number of farming implements. On the same day the contents of the house were auctioned. On 5 March the executors advertised for persons having claims against the estate to forward them to Pritchett, who conducted the auction of Bungarribee itself exactly six months later.
The Valuable Estate of Bungarrabbee, the Property of the late John Campbell, Esq., situated on the Great Western Road, about 10 miles [16 kilometres] beyond Parramatta; it contains 2,000 acres [809 hectares] of very excellent land, fenced all round, has 250 acres [101hectares] cleared, four large inclosed paddocks, various stockyards and piggery, a garden consisting of 8 acres [three hectares], with a great number and variety of young fruit trees well watered, and two creeks always supplied with water running through the farm.
The house, built of the very best materials, and scarcely completed at Mr Campbell's death, consists of a dining room and five bedrooms on the ground floor, and four small rooms in the upper storey. Attached, is a most excellent kitchen or Servants' Room (the residence of the Family for some years before the building of the new house), with store, ham house, stable, barn carpenter and blacksmiths' shops, superior barracks for the men,&c. The Dairy is considered to be, in design, the most complete in the Colony ...It seems possible that the round tower, the distinguishing feature of Bungarribee, was not completed at the time of Campbell's death. A number of the locally fired bricks used in its construction were dated 1827.The auction did not bring Mr Pritchett or the executors of John Campbell's estate any pleasure. It was passed in, but by early October Bungarribee had a new owner.
The buyer was Thomas Icely, who had arrived in Sydney in 1820 aboard the Surrey, captained by Thomas Raine. Icely, the twenty two-year-old son of an English ship owner and merchant, had made the voyage to the colony to secure his fortune. This he did, initially by disposing of a large stock of goods he had brought with him aboard the Surrey. He opened offices in George Street and within a short period obtained. a series of extensive land grants. The first, of 243 hectares, was granted by Governor Macquarie in 1820, and his holdings were increased to over 800 hectares by Governor Brisbane in 1823. Icely chose an area nea rBathurst and called it Saltram.
The purchase of Bungarribee was made with the assistance of John Macarthur, who allowed him to take over Campbell's original mortgage, although the interest was raised from 8 to 10 per cent. The Sydney Gazette, which rarely missed the opportunity to chronicle the fortunes of Sydney's leading colonists, reported on Monday, 6 October 1828, that Bungarribee had changed hands for £3652. For Icely it had been a good month. Governor Darling had appointed him a magistrate and on the previous Friday one of his prized horses, Lawyer, had won a Maiden Plate at the Parramatta races, beating Lawson's much favoured bay filly, Princess. Icely used Bungarribee as a base for his bloodstock, breeding both racehorses and draughthorses. The former, which fairly dominated the Sydney turf scene during the late 1820s and 1830s, included the chestnut mare, Manto, dam of Chancellor, which captured both the Governor's and Brisbane Cups in 1832, and Cornelia, Problem, Fairy, Brougham, Brenda, Silvertail, Trollop, Trull and Gipsey.
He returned to England in 1830, leaving Bungarribe eunder the management of James Blackett, and returned the following year with a new bride, Charlotte, the daughter of Nicholas Phillip Rothery, a naval officer. Together with Charlotte's two brothers and a large number of servants, the couple set up house at Bungarribee. A severe drought in the 1829-30 season compelled Icely to review his plans for further expansion. On his return to Australia he set about establishing a new estate. He found fresher pastures in .the highlands to the southwest, purchasing almost 600 hectares in the' Parish of Errol, on the bank of the Belubula River. Icely also obtained an adjoining grant of 225 hectares, while Charlotte's brothers, Frederick John and William Montague Rothery, each took up grants of 990 hectares nearby. Considered together, these formed the basis of the Coombing Park estate and of the town of Carcoar. Icely turned his attention to the new properties and decided that Bungarribee would have to go. By the end of May1832 it had once more changed hands, this time to Charles Smith, known as the "Sporting Butcher" of George Street.
On 29 June, at the Royal Hotel in George Street, Samuel Lyons auctioned Icely's valuable stud stock from Bungarribee. The contents of the house were also sold, among the more valuable effects being a pianoforte by Broadwood, a harp by Erard and vanous carriages including "An Elegant Chariot and Phaeton, by Peters; Stanhope by Burnand with Harness &c. complete". Considering Charles Smith's high profile in the colony, he seems to have left very little permanent record. It is known that he had a large butchery on the northwest corner of George and Market Streets, and an active interest in horseracing. He consequently used Bungarribee much as Icely had, as a breeding base for his bloodstock.
The estate became a leading stud and after the 1835 season he procured such champion stallions as Emigrant and Theorum (both imported from England by Captain Rouse of the Royal Navy), Young Tom of Lincoln, Selby, Providence and Emancipation, for service. Fees ranged between £3 3s and £5. He also contributed to the social improvement of the surrounding area, donating £50 to the fund for the construction of St Bartholomew's Church of England at Prospect. In that regard he was in the company of Edward Lawson and a Charles Whalen, who in 1837 discovered the Jenolan Caves. Smith spent a considerable sum on improvements to Bungarribee, building stables and outhouses of brick that remained until the final demolition in the 1950s.
In April 1836 the Sydney Gazette reported that fire had destroyed some newly erected stables. In September of the following year, the Gazette again turned its attention to Smith: "On Thursday afternoon, Mr Benjamin Smith, brother of Mr Charles Smith, butcher of George Street, dropped dead close to the gate of the Bungarribee estate belonging to his brother on the Western Road: further particulars have not yet reached Sydney." Smith sold Bungarribee and early in 1840 it was purchased by Henry Herman Kater, who had arrived in December 1839 from England, aboard the Euphrates. Kater brought with him a number of thoroughbred horses- for him, as for Icely and Smith, the turf held a particular fascination and Durham cattle. But he remained at Bungarribee for only eighteen months. The depression of 1841 hit him particularly badly and with only a fraction of the wealth he had brought to Australia, he moved his family to Caleula, 29 kilometres from Bathurst. Here his fortunes gradually returned. His sons continued the pastoral tradition, establishing the Mumblebon eStud near Warren .
The eldest, Henry Edward Kater, who was born at Bungarribee, combined his love for the land with a successful business and political career. Bungarribee's next occupant was Joseph Armstrong, a veterinarian with offices at Castlereagh Street North. It is not known whether he was a tenant or owner. Apart from treating the colony's animals, Armstrong made a respectable living in the early 1840s buying horses for resale to agents in India.
Used as remounts for the Indian cavalry, the trade had been conducted for some time but from the early1840s the market vastly improved, particularly after Britain had annexed the territory of Scinde, near Bombay. Armstrong had been operating from St John's Farm (now known as St Johns Park) from July 1843 and in October advertised in such journals as the Sydney Morning Herald and the One of the round rooms showing the curved door Weekly Register of Politics, Facts and General Literature that he had moved to Bungarribee. At this time he was also enjoying considerable success in sheep-boiling. With the aid of Mr Wirchener, his overseer, Armstrong charged only ninepence to kill a sheep, boil down its carcass and cask the resulting tallow for transport to the markets.
For a further threepence the wool would be removed from the pelt, a process known as fell mongering,and sorted . "The tallow hitherto manufactured by Mr Armstrong" the Weekly Register reported, "has been pronounced by competent judges to be the best quality, and has produced the best prices hitherto obtained in the colony." Despite the stated attraction that there were "no tollgates from the Interior to Bungarrabee", Armstrong did not have much success there and by May 1844 had moved to premises "along the Parramatta Road". Early in 1845 Bungarribee featured in the newspapers again when the body of Major Frederick Hovenden was found on an isolated part of the estate. Hovenden, who was in desperate financial straits, had disappeared from Sydney a considerable time before. In January 1843 the Sydney Morning Herald notified that there was mail awaiting his collection. On 1 June 1844, Nicholas James of 429 George Street, on behalf of a number of Hovenden's associates, placed a notice in the Herald bringing the major's "long continued absence" to general notice .
Hovenden had apparently fled to the estate to commit suicide. The words "Died of Hunger" had been engraved on the peak of his travelling cap with a pocket-knife. His funeral was held on 4 February 1845,the grim procession leaving from the home of Major Smytheat Surry Hills. The East India Company was the next to occupy Bungarribee, using the property to house horses purchased for export to India. Strong, well-bred horses were in great demand and bloodstock from New South Wales, known as Walers, fetched high prices. Regrettably, there exists little material relating to this period, but it is said that for the short time the company was in control of Bungarribee, there were numerous opulent, well-attended balls. Bungarribee again came up for sale in August 1846,when a message appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald on the21st of the month: "All claims against the Hon. East India Company's Depot at Bungarrabbee, are required to be presented to the undersigned, on or before the 25th instant, from which date the Establishment will be broken up." It was signed "Arbuthrot Dallas, H.E.I.C.S.".
The East India Company moved out and the property was acquired by Benjamin Boyd. Having arrived in the colony just four years earlier, Boyd was already one of the largest landowners. In an effort to create a supply of cheap labour for his pastoral holdings, he imported, in 184 7, 200 natives of the New Hebrides and Loyalty Islands. The Sydney Morning Herald in October 184 7 covered the arrival of thirty-five of those destined for Bungarribee:
"They were conveyed from Sydney in the course of the previous night by one of the North Shore ferry steamers, and arriving at Parramatta at 4 a.m. were forthwith marched through the town en route for their location before daylight." Boyd's stay at Bungarribee, like that of most of its occupiers, must have been brief. He left Australia in 1849, after the collapse of a great whaling venture at Twofold Bay, and disappeared in the Pacific a few years later. Bungarribee seemed to settle into quiet respectability, since there are few noteworthy references to the estate until the 1870s.
In February 1878 the Town and Country Journal published "A Day at Bungarribbee" with the by-line "O.K.", which provides a glimpse of the sporting life of the period.
"OH! you ought to have been with us!" is a remark with which sundry and divers sporting friends of mine have teased me times out of mind, when they've recounted their enjoyment of a day among the rabbits at the hospitable home of Mr. and Mrs. Cleeve; but it always happened me, until the other day, only to know of such affairs too late; and it was with no small rejoicement that I found myself on board the 9 o'clock train last Saturday morning with a friend, en route for Bungarribbee.
Arrived at Blacktown, we caught sight of our host just driving up to the station in his dogcart, to which we were not long in transferring ourselves and belongings, when away trotted the chestnut mare at a good serviceable pace to last a journey. Turning into the Bungarribbe eestate, through the outer gate, it was plain to see that the country thereabouts has had its full share of suffering from drought; the grass being dry and brown as far as the eye could reach ... Having been kindly welcomed on arrival, and refreshed the inner man, we prepared to sally forth on a raid against the "bunnies", and were soon away down the paddock, accompanied by asporting-looking youngster in charge of the old greymare, carrying a sack for the rabbits, and containing at one end the axe and spade for digging out. Our help had slung across his shoulder the basket of ferrets, andwas followed by a very good-looking liver and white mute spaniel, a greyhound, and "Ted", a black terrier, who's about the smartest dog I ever saw of any breed ... Well, we soon put the ferret into a burrow, and, in a twinkling, out bolted a rabbit, at which I blazed away one barrel of my muzzle-loader, having the satisfaction of seeing the "coney" tumble over and die on the spot . . . So onwe went, our successes varied, though not very great, for the game, being all underground, didn’t care about bolting on such a hot day, and we hadn’t a large number of killed to account for when dinner came.
Need I say we did sportsmen's justice to the good things, made so sweet by the hearty welcome of our kind entertainers. We wasted not much time afterwards, however, but started once more to the burrows containing the sport, till the time arrived for going to catch the afternoon train at 5 o'clock, at Blacktown, and then we exchanged kindadieux, after accepting a pressing invitation to go again when the weather becomes colder, and we can spare a night, so as to have the morning and the evening forshooting, and take a spell in the middle of the day. Thanks to our host and Ted, we found a swag of rabbits ready to load the dogcart with, so many thanks to the owner of Bungarribbee and Mrs. Cleeve, I may mention that my share of the spoils were excellent, and I hope soon to spend another such pleasant day ... "O.K. "
The Cleeve family occupied Bungarribee from sometime in the 1860s and were still in residence in the late 1870s. By the time the Bungarribee Farms were offered for sale around 1910, the estate comprised some 486 hectares.
The occupant then was a Major J. J. Walters and the agent for the sale was Arthur Rickard and Co. Ltd of Pitt Street, Sydney. The estate was subdivided into 3, 5, 6 and 8 hectare farms and much was made in the auction catalogue of country life:
Are you working hard without much prospect ahead but more work? Are you falling short of the full success you feel should be yours? If so, turn your eyes to the Buhgarribee Farms. There you will live the sane and healthful life of the country, almost within sound of the city bells - there you will enjoy the association of prosperous and contented neighbours. You will be prosperous and contented yourself. As the years passed, the Bungarribee homestead passed through various hands. Major Walters remained inoccupation until his death in the late 1920s, when it passed to a Charles W. Hopkins who spent a large sum restoring it.
By the 1950s it had deteriorated, but even with the western spread of the city and the development of such suburbs as Black town, Doonside and Rooty Hill, the estate was virtually untouched. Bungarribee remained an isolated wreck atop the slight rise from the Doonside Road. The wide carriage drive was overgrown and the house crumbled before it. The roof was half demolished and each winter brought the house further toward disintegration. Every window had been smashed, the shutters were ripped from the French doors, but it retained a stately aura, fostering many ghost stories over the years. In February 1957, after the property had been acquired by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission for the radio transmitting station, the Sydney Sun -Herald ran an article relating the more memorable stories.
The journalist, David Burke, maintained that Bungarribee was possibly one of Australia's most haunted houses- with two ghosts downstairs and one up. The sale of Bungarribee and much of the surrounding region to the Commonwealth Government, spelled the end of the old house. The establishment of a radio transmitting facility required the property to be cleared and contracts were let for Bungarribee's demolition. The man chosen to demolish Bungarribee was John Lawson, a Rooty Hill building contractor. The dismantling of the homestead solved a few mysteries - one being the persistent ghost stories. Lawson found that when the round tower had been added, two cavities the full height of the building had been created.
These were covered over but not sealed, and over the years possums had fallen into the cavities and been unable to escape. Their frantic scratchings and screams as they tried to fight their way out, plus the urine staining the interior walls, would have been sufficient to generate at least some of the ghost stories. Lawson also uncovered a sunken garden, under forty six centimetres of topsoil, still with its stone flagging and paths intact.
The demolition brought to light building methods longs ince abandoned. Draw-pegs instead of nails, pit-sawn roofing timbers, pitch pine roof covering in the early stages of the house, slate fixed with cast brass nails in the latter additions. It was a partial blessing that a man such as John Lawson should deliver Bungarribee's coup de grace. Later an industrial arts teacher and a leading figure in the local historical society, Lawson saved many of the original building materials, where others may have unthinkingly destroyed those valuable remnants of our colonial past.
Lost Glories: A Memorial to Forgotten Australian Buildings
David Latta, Angus & Robertson, 1986