Sydney Architecture Images-
Gone but not forgotten
|Built- 1841 Demolished- 1933|
|Old Colonial Georgian|
|Summary||The most famous of the Macquarie Street residences, Burdekin House, was demolished in 1933. Erected in 1841 for merchant and ironmonger, Thomas Burdekin, it passed on his death in 1844 to his wife and children, two of whom, Marshall and Sydney, built successful political careers in the colony. The house remained in the family until the early 1920s and was later purchased by the trustees of St Stephen's Church as the site for a new church, the old one having been demolished to make way for the extension of Martin Place.|
Macquarie Street in Sydney must surely rate as a strong contender for the title of Australia's most historic street. On the east side the north and south wings of Governor Macquarie's Rum Hospital, built in 1810-16, are still standing; one houses a section of the New South Wales Parliament, while the other, which also saw service as a branch of the Royal Mint, has been restored for use as a museum. Immediately beside the Mint building is Greenway's convict barracks, a masterpiece of Georgian architecture that has also, in recent years, undergone restoration.
Opposite the barracks, on the west side of Macquarie Street, is another Greenway building, the elegant St James' Church. Macquarie Street was little more than a dray track at the time of Macquarie's arrival in 1810. It wound from the settlement, past Arthur Phillip's much maligned Government House, and continued along the area of high ground known as the Farm Cove Ridge. Jt skirted the town common that would later become Hyde Park, continued to what is now Oxford Street and meandered on to the south headland. As the colony grew in size and confidence under Governor Macquarie, the mean thoroughfares of the earliest days fell under the governor's stringent town planning orders.
Streets were named in honour of the previous governors (Phillip, Hunter, King and Bligh), prominent members of the colonial administration (Bent for the judge-advocate, O'Connell for the lieutenant-governor), and the Crown and the peerage (George, York, Kent, Clarence and Sussex). It seems appropriate that one of the principal streets should bear Macquarie's name. While the main areas of commerce were George and Pitt Streets, Macquarie Street came to cater for both the outflow of commercial prosperity and the opposite end of the social class-the convicts. The western side of Macquarie Street became a favoured site for the homes of the colony's fine gentlemen and their families. But on this side very little remains of the street's colonial character.
The most famous of the residences, Burdekin House, was demolished in 1933. Erected in 1841 for merchant and ironmonger, Thomas Burdekin, it passed on his death in 1844 to his wife and children, two of whom, Marshall and Sydney, built successful political careers in the colony. The house remained in the family until the early 1920s and was later purchased by the trustees of St Stephen's as the site for a new church, the old one having been demolished to make way for the extension of Martin Place. Thomas Burdekin arrived in Sydney in 1831 and established himself as a merchant. His business expanded rapidly, taking over the George Street dealings of John T. Wilson in 1836,which two years later began operating as the Australian branch of Burdekin and Hawley, ironmongers and general merchants of London.
Thomas's partners were his brother Benjamin and Alfred Hawley. The business was most successful and over the next decade Thomas acquired considerable land holdings in Sydney and other parts of the colony. In 1832 he married Mary-Ann Bossley, of Derbyshire, England, to whom he had been engaged before his departure. She came to Australia accompanied by her brother, Dr John B. Bossley, who, by 1836, was operating as a chemist and druggist at 18 Pitt Street. He published large advertisements in the Sydney press extolling the wide selection of his goods, from patent medicines and medical instruments to tea and groceries, as well as "Mercurial Ointment for Sheep Manufactured by Steam-Bottled Soda Water-Horse and Cattle Medicines prepared with Genuine Articles, and on the shortest notice".
Bossley headed the family land empire that today is commemorated in the Sydney suburb of Bossley Park. Thomas Burdekin quietly amassed a large fortune from the operation of Burdekin and Hawley in Australia. In early1840 he was behind moves to establish an insurance society operated on the mutual principle (at a public meeting for this purpose, he revealed that he had paid over £10,000 in insurance since his arrival in the colony) and by June was chairman of directors of the Mutual Fire Insurance Association. He served on the Sydney Municipal Council as an alderman and also supported the election of Robert Campbell Junior, of Bligh Street, as a candidate for the council. In 1842 he took over the activities of the Melbourne merchant house H. W. Mason and extended the business as far as Hobart.
The combined proceeds of his undertakings gave him a more than comfortable living. By the late 1830s he was looking for a suitable site to establish a family mansion and selected one on the west side of Macquarie Street. The Australian of 11 July 1840 notified that allotment number nine of Section 41, the grant previously in the name of Christopher Crane, was to be transferred to a new owner. Crane was licensee of the inn known as the Leather Bottle from the early 1830s through the 1840s. He had originally advertised the sale of the Macquarie Street site in October 1839, mentioning that he had owned it since 1823.The architect of Burdekin's mansion is unknown and the names of John Verge and James Hume have been discussed with equal gravity. Modern opinion goes in the direction of Hume, who is known to have supervised construction, but it is more probable that the design came from England. G. Nesta Griffiths in Some Houses and People of New South Wales states that "It was designed by an English architect whose name is unknown, as most of the family papers were lost in a fire, but its counterpart graces Belgrave Square, and it was a typical London house."
The interior of Burdekin House did nothing to suggest Verge, and although the pattern-book appearance of the exterior did have certain echoes of this great architect's style, there is nothing which would decide the issue completely. So little is known of Hume and his work that he might be singled out only because he was in the right place at the right time. The building of grand houses such as Thomas Burdekin's was a source of great satisfaction in the colony, marking for many a new maturity. The Australian of 15 July 1841 professed itself glad that notwithstanding the Building Act, and the high prices of labour and materials, the hovels which have long been eye sores in many of our best streets, are rapidly disappearing and substantial and comfortable houses are being erected on the ground formerly occupied by them.
In all parts of the town fine English-looking houses have sprung up in great numbers, and those who have been absent from Sydney for even one or two years only, are surprised at the change which has taken place. One of the finest buildings in Sydney is the house, now nearly finished, which has been built by Mr Burdekin, in Macquarie-street, and which would not disgrace any square in London. We are glad too to perceive that many of the fences which formerly extended far into the footpath of George-street, have been removed further back, thus giving a more regular appearance to the street. All that is wanting is a general lighting with gas, and we hope that it will not be too long before this takes place.
The Sydney Morning Herald of 30 August 1841 also turned its attention to Thomas Burdekin's mansion: Mr Burdekin's new house in Macquarie-street, is now so far completed as to enable us to pronounce it the most handsome house in Sydney. It is built in the style of many of town mansions at the west end of the town, and to no part of London would it do discredit. It is exactly opposite the Council Chamber and those who have not yet seen it would do well to take a walk for the purpose of having a look at it. The house was one of pure Georgian simplicity. It stood three storeys high, although with the fall of the land at the rear, there was also sufficient space for a basement. The entrance from the street was through a beautiful panelled door overset by an oval lunette.
The main hallway extended from the front to the rear, a length of over 12 metres, evenly dividing the house. To the left on entering was the dining room, measuring 9 metres long and 6 metres wide with a servery at the rear. Through the dining room, and hard against the sidewall, was a long, narrow study. To the right of the central hallway was a double drawing room 6 metres wide and running the full depth of the house and then, to balance the study, a library. French doors from the study and the library opened on to the front and rear verandas on the ground floor. The veranda along the front was supported by fluted wooden columns and caps painted to match the faced stonework. The first floor was reached by a cedar staircase at the rear of the hall. There were six bedrooms on the first floor, together with bathrooms, a smoking room and sewing room. The intended first floor front balcony was never built, but a rear balcony served those connecting bedrooms. The second floor was arranged as the first and was given over mainly to servants' accommodation.' The stonework of the fireplaces was white onyx and cedar was the predominant wood, except for the floorboards, which were Baltic pine. While there was more than a suggestion of Engish townhouse in the building's exterior, the style of the interior came from the opposite side of the Channel.
It was said that the drawing rooms were presented in the finest examples of the Louis XIV style then available and even the furniture was specially imported to complement the style. At the rear of the house were the stabling enclosures and further accommodation for the servants. In later years the growth of the city diminished this area, although at the time of demolition the rear yard was still over 17 metres deep. The carriage entrance was along the southern boundary, between the house and a single-storey lodge. Thomas Burdekin's luck in business did not follow him in the building of his mansion.
The events of the next few years are recounted by a somewhat hostile witness, J. C. Byrne, who in Twelve Years Wanderings in the British Colonies from 1835to 1847, published in London in 1848, tells the following story:
A person named Burdekin, an extensive ironmonger and storekeeper, had amassed by his trade and private discounting on an extensive scale, a vast fortune. Whether true or false, no man in Sydney was both so much disliked on account of the usurious interest, as it was asserted, he exacted from those who were so unfortunate as to fall into his hands, and so much feared on account of the power his wealth, joined with the manner he employed it, gave him over any one who had occasion to pass bills, and wanted accommodation, as it was exceedingly likely the bills would find their way into his hands. Well, this Mr Burdekin took it into his head to purchase an extensive piece of ground in one of the highest situations in Sydney, and in the immediate vicinity of the Club-House of the New South Wales' aristocracy, many of the members of which had particular reason for not being much attended to this discounting gentleman.
The land once purchased, the erection of a pile of costly magnificence was proceeded with, and ultimately completed. The building was one better fitted for the abode of an earl in England, than the residence of a colonial shopkeeper in Sydney ...
But shortly after the building was completed and before it was taken possession of as a residence by the builder's family – a stranger, and one comparatively poor, arrived from England; he had been in the colony before , but was supposed to be dead. As he landed, he gazed around the much-changed prospect; where nothing but rocks and tea-tree scrub formerly existed, large shops or noble mansions now stood. The survey was continued; amazement turned into joy, as from the innermost reaches of an old trunk, the stranger drew a large official paper, dark with time and neglect. A small map at the foot was scanned, conviction was the result; and after consulting some friends who had known him in former days, the newly arrived stranger proceeded, on the following day, with the assistance of some others, to relieve Mr Burdekin of the care of his house. Possession was taken, and, amidst the greatest astonishment, retained.
Legal proceedings ensued, but after a short time the builder became satisfied that he was "done"; that his title was bad; so in order to make the best of such a bad concern, and sooner than lose the house, he had to enter into an arrangement to allow. the "stranger", who in reality held the original grant, the handsome sum of £600 per annum for his life. Such, however, was the annoyance of mind he suffered in consequence of thus having expended£16,000 or £18,000 on another man's land, and the constant "iteration" of the circumstance by those who bare him no good will, that his health gave way and he descended into the· grave with few regrets, the victim of mortification. The home, to which a grand name had been originally given, is now known as Burdekin's "Folly"; and none who visit Sydney can fail to remark this ambitious monument.
Thomas Burdekin may not have lived in his mansion for very long before his death, but while there he made a pledge that linked the family name with Australian history. His promise to assist explorer Ludwig Leichhardt's 1844-45 expedition was honoured after his death by his widow, Mary-Ann Burdekin, and Leichhardt did not forget the kindness. His journal entry for 2 April 1845, later published in journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, A Distance of Upwards of 3, 000 Miles During the Years 1844- 4 5, noted "that I passed to the east side of Mount McConnel, and reached by that route the Junction of the Suttor with the newly discovered river, which I called the Burdekin, in acknowledgement of the liberal assistance which I received from Mrs Burdekin of Sidney- in the outfit of my expedition". This link with the Burdekin family continued in later years. Edward Bradly, a nephew of john Murphy - a member of Leichhardt's Port Essington expedition - was employed by one of Thomas's younger sons, Sydney Burdekin, and managed the estate upon Sydney's death. The provisions of Thomas Burdekin's will, made public on his death in 1844, left much of his personal estate in the hands of trustees - to his wife Mary-Ann Burdekin, his business partners Alfred Hawley and Benjamin Burdekin, and to William MacDonald of Darlinghurst and Henry Carmichael of Sydney.
The house passed to Mary-Ann, and on her death, to Sydney. Large parcels of real estate were divided between Mary-Ann, and the children - Lloyd, Bossley, Marshall, Sydney and a daughter who died a short time later. The two younger sons, Marshall and Sydney, were the most prominent in Sydney. Both were educated by William Timothy Cape at Darlinghurst, and at the University of Sydney, where Marshall obtained a Master of Arts in 1859, the same year Sydney collected a Bachelor of Arts degree. Marshall entered the Legislative Assembly in 1863, representing the Liverpool Plains. He was selected by Charles Cowper to be Colonial Treasurer in 1866, but from the 1870sspent most of his time overseas. He died in London in 1886,at the age of forty -nine. Sydney Burdekin's early adult life was devoted to the management of the family real estate holdings, although on leaving university he was briefly articled to the then Crown Solicitor, William Whaley Billyard. In 1875 he sold his interests in the Liverpool plains district and in Queensland to Alexander Rogers of New Zealand and with his bride Catherine, daughter of Keyran Byrne of Attunga, took up residence at 195 Macquarie Street, next-door to Burdekin House.
Overtures had been made to Thomas Burdekin to enter politics, but, apart from a period as a member of the Sydney Municipal Council, he showed no interest. Both Marshall and Sydney, however, were drawn to public life from the 1860s and Burdekin House was certainly familiar territory to many politicians. On 15 August 1855 the colonial architect, WilliamWeaver, was requested to prepare a costing of new premises for the Legislative Council. He crossed Macquarie Street and approached Mary-Ann Burdekin with a proposition to lease Burdekin House. Negotiations did not proceed much further and other avenues eventually led to the purchase of a prefabricated iron building (still in use as the assembly chamber), originally intended for Bendigo as a church. Sydney Burdekin entered parliament as member forTamworth in 1880, and represented East Sydney from 1884 and Hawkesbury from 1892 until his retirement in 1894.
The contest for East Sydney brought Sydney Burdekin against George Houston Reid. The two men remained friends and ten years later Reid formed his ministry in the spacious double drawing room of Burdekin House. Indeed for many years, a path was worn between Parliament House and Burdekin House by the Free Trade faction of which Sydney was a staunch member. Sydney was also a strong supporter of Henry Parkes in the House and was a prominent participant in the centenary celebrations of 1888 when Parkes laid the foundation stone for a new parliament house. This was never built, despite the grandiose designs, and the site is today occupied by the State Library of New South Wales. Sydney became an alderman of the Sydney Municipa l Council in 1883 and, while not a dazzling politician in the House, he was well respected in business and proved to be a better mayor than he might ever have been premier.
He held the position of mayor of Sydney from 1 January 1890 until April1891, when he left Australia for a tour of Europe. The Evening News of 18 December 1899 recorded Sydney's death at his estate, Lloydhurst, at Rooty Hill on the previous day. He was still a member of the board of Sydney Hospital and of the Aborigines' Protection Board. The News claimed dropsy as the cause, and reflected that "The deceased, who was considered one of the few Australian millionaires, gave largely and often unostentatiously to charities of every denomination". He was survived by his wife, Catherine, two sons and three daughters. The gross value of his estate was just over £252,525.Catherine received for her personal use and benefit absolutely, the whole of the furniture, plate, jewellery, carriages, livestock and household effects in his town residence at Macquarie Street,as well as at Lloydhurst, and at another farm at Wilberforce. Catherine Burdekin died in January 1913, at the age of fifty -six.
A memorial service was held at St James' Church, then the party proceeded to the Church of England cemeteryat Rookwood.Burdekin House,,remained under the care of trustees,but by the early 1920s there was concern that the SydneyBurdekin Trust could no longer k~ep the house together. In 1922representatives of the Royal Australian Historical Society andthe Institute of Architects called on the New South WalesMinister for Education and proposed that the government shouldpurchase Burdekin House. There were no funds, they were told . 'The property was placed on the market and in June1922, James R. Lawson auctioned the fine antique furniture,much of it installed by Thomas Burdekin. Such treasures as theentire contents of the Louis XIV drawing room, a Bechsteinconcert grand pianoforte (which had won first prize at the SydneyInternational Exhibition of 1879- 80), bookcases in rareRichmond River cedar and a full-size Burroughs and Watts ofLondon billiard table, indeed the entire contents of the house71and outbuildings went under the hammer.
The auction movedthrough the lower floors to the top and then to the lodge on theopposite side of the entrance way, the servants' quarters, theharness room and basement.In 1923 the house was sold for £55,000 to theMacquarie Properties Syndicate, which intended to build a hotelon the site, but the following year it passed to Thomas E. Rofe,a company director with offices in Castlereagh Street and a homeat W ahroonga. Rofe many times donated the use of the houseto various charities, particularly the Royal Prince AlfredHospital, for exhibitions and showings. One of the greatest ofthese, known simply as the Burdekin House Exhibition, wasopened by the governor, Sir Dudley de Chair, on 8 October 1929to aid the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital.
The exhibition displayedantique and modern furniture arranged in the various roomsaccording to period .On the lower ground floor were selections of oakfurniture. The ground floor, particularly the former dining room,was given over to walnut furniture and early lacquer work. Inthe double drawing room, appropriately enough, were displayeditems of French influence including a sedan chair, richlydecorated and upholstered in silk. The main bedrooms on thefirst floor were laid out with mahogany furniture as a living room,dining room and bedroom of the period between 1 7 50 and 1800.Chippendale, Sheraton and Hepplewhite antiques drew largecrowds. In other rooms were displays of Victorian and EarlyColonial pieces.On the top floor, six small rooms were decorated inwhat was known in 1929 as "the modern style", today prized asArt Deco. Much of the furniture was supplied by Beard Watson'sand Anthony Hordern's department stores.
The exhibition was open from 8 October until 12December 1929 and attracted large crowds. Its success heartenedmany observers, particularly those who were concerned with therumours that Burdekin House was soon to be sold anddemolished . Sydney U re Smith, president of the exhibitioncommittee, said: "If a group of interested people could be found,who would consider acquiring Burdekin House for the State,such exhibitions could be managed frequently and Sydney wouldhave a much needed Museum of Decorative and Applied Artwhichundoubtedly would be of the greatest benefit in developingtaste in the community."It was a noble aim, but one that was doomed. On14 February 1933 the Sydney Morning Herald reported thatnegotiations were proceeding for the sale of Burdekin House tothe trustees of St Stephen's Church, Phillip Street, which wasto be demolished for the extension of Martin Place from ElizabethStreet to Macquarie Street.
That evening, at the Royal AustralianHistorical Society, Charles Henry Bertie expressed his sorrowat the move and his hope that Burdekin House could be retainedas a museum."Burdekin House is now suffering from centurydisease," he said. "As our old buildings approach their centenarymark, almost inevitably circumstances arise which suggest their·removal. As a consequence, we have only about four buildingsin Sydney actually more than a century old."
On 25 February, the Sydney Morning Herald printeda piece by U~a V. Foster, which echoed Bertie's concern.We talk about our country having no legends, nohistorical castles, abbeys, churches, in fact, buildingsof any kind, such a'S overseas countries have; yet, howcan we when as soon as we have some interestinghistorical building that reaches close within the centurymark, and depicting to the full the architecture of ourearly days, man's destructive hand wants to leveLit tothe ground- sell its materials in the making as secondhandgoods for a paltry sum- and then erect something modern.
Are we to have only modern things andbuildings in Sydney?The sale to the church authorities was finalised and a publicinspection was held on 16 August 1933. Proceeds from theinspection went to the Presbyterian Women's Federation for theerection of a stained glass window in the "Presbyterian Cathedral"in Canberra.Demolition began the following day. Even the honeylocust trees in the rear courtyard did not escape. On 8 September1933 a letter appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald signed"Student", which chronicled an almost morbid fascination withthe mansion's destruction:Those of your readers that are students of buildingpractice would do well to visit the remains of BurdekinHouse, Macquarie-street, now in the process ofdemolition.
The whole of the walls are visible in sections,as if the building had been dissected with a knife,showing clearly the varying thicknesses of brick andstone, the bands, methods of fixing joints, plastering,etc, etc, most of which belongs to the old order ofbuilding practice.The site was cleared and soon after contractors Kell and Rigbybegan work on the new St Stephen's Church, from plans suppliedby John Reid and Finlay Munroe. Built of sandstone from theWaverley quarries and topped by a copper spire, the new churchhad a frontage of 24 metres to Macqtiarie Street. Stained glasswindows from the old church were built into a new memorialhall commemorating an earlier minister, John Ferguson. Thechurch was dedicated on 23 March 1935.
Lost Glories: A Memorial to Forgotten Australian Buildings
David Latta, Angus & Robertson, 1986
|Above- The present St Stephens Church on the site opened in 1935.|
Burdekin House in Macquarie Street Sydney was built in 1841, probably by
the architect James Hume, for Thomas Burdekin, Sydney shopkeeper. It was
owned and occupied by members of the Burdekin family until its sale in
1922. When a hotel, to be called the Waldorf Astoria, was proposed for
the site the Royal Australian Historical Society unsuccessfully lobbied
government to acquire the house for preservation. In 1924 the house was
sold to T.E. Rofe, a Sydney businessman and philanthropist. The grand
spaces on the ground floor, and the back courtyard, were given over to
the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Ladies' Auxiliary for fund-raising
functions and the upstairs rooms were let as studios for artists. A
major public exhibition of fine and decorative arts was held at Burdekin
House in late 1929.
The house was offered for sale again in 1933. It was purchased by the trustees of St Stephen's Presbyterian Church and demolished in August 1933 for a new church to replace the existing one in Phillip Street, itself demolished for the extension of Martin Place.
St Stephens Church St Stephen’s predecessor was an iron Presbyterian
Church which stood where the new wing of the State Library now
stands. It was replaced in 1879 by a St Stephens in Phillip Street,
in turn demolished when Martin Place was extended in the early 1930s.
Above- the previous location for St Stephens Church that was lost when Martin Place was extended in the early 1930s.
The present Macquarie Street site involved demolition of historic Burdekin House, built for merchant Thomas Burdekin in 1841, and in its time, a centre of Sydney fashion, society and politics. The present St Stephens Church opened in 1935.
Thomas Burdekin was born in Sheffield, the son of Joseph and Elizabeth Burdekin, on 28 December 1801.
In 1833, Thomas Burdekin married his English fiancée, Mary Ann Bossley (1806-89) in Sydney. She was daughter of Thomas and Helen Bossley of Derbyshire and had arrived to the Colony in 1832 with her brother John Brown Bossley (1810-72).
Thomas and Mary Ann Burdekin had four sons and a daughter, including Sydney Burdekin. Their second son, Bossley, Colonial Treasurer, married a daughter of EC Weekes.
Thomas Burdekin built a mansion called Burdekin House on Macquarie Street in 1841. The family lived in it until 1922, and it was demolished in 1933 to make way for St Stephens Presbyterian Church. There is a brass plaque laid in the pavement outside the church that commemorates this house.
Thomas Burdekin died on 18 August 1844. He was buried at the old Church of England Cemetery at Rookwood.
Following Thomas’s death, Mary Ann Bossley became the matriarch of the Burdekin family, leaving an inheritance of £366,493 when she died. She is the namesake of the Sydney suburb of Bossley Park.
Occupation & interests
Thomas Burdekin immigrated to Sydney to set up a branch of his father’s ironmonger business. Thomas’s father Joseph was from Bridghouses in Sheffield. He was an ironmonger and cutler and was in partnership with a Mr Hawley in the well-known ironmongery firm of Burdekin and Hawley, which had premises in London and Sheffield. Joseph Burdekin married Elizabeth Hancock at St Peters Cathedral Sheffield in 1791. They had eight children including an earlier Thomas who died as an infant.
Thomas Burdekin arrived in Sydney in 1828 on the Australia to establish a branch of Burdekin and Hawley, well-known ironmongers and general merchants of Sheffield, in George Street. He made a fortune lending money to people in return for security on property and when they couldn’t pay him back he took over the property. There was a major legal case over land at Singleton north of Sydney around 1841.
In 1830, he bought a William Street lot from John Brown and by 1842 owned property in Macquarie, College and York streets.
In 1841, Thomas Burdekin commissioned James Hume to build Burdekin House in Macquarie Street, opposite the Legislative Council. Occupied by the Burdekin family until 1922, it was demolished in 1933 and replaced by St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church. At his death Thomas Burdekin left a vast amount of real estate in Sydney and other parts of the colony to his family.
After Thomas Burdekin died, his wife, Mary Ann became the matriarch of the family. She contributed towards the costs of exploration of Northern Queensland by explorer Dr Ludwig Leichhardt which led to the discovery of the major river he named as the Burdekin River in honour of Thomas and Mary. This in turn led to a whole area in Queensland known as Burdekin Shire, and much later to the Burdekin Dam and associated irrigation schemes in the area.
In 1831, Thomas Burdekin was elected to the Council of the Australian College. His support for Dr Ludwig Leichhardt’s northern explorations was rewarded by having the Burdekin River named after him.
Information on Thomas Burdekin and the Burdekin family courtesy Michael Burdekin.
Shirley Humphries, ‘Burdekin, Sydney (1839–1899)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/burdekin-sydney-3331/text4627, accessed 24 January 2013.
City of Sydney Archives: Aldermen’s Files
Hughes, Joy (ed) 1999, Demolished Houses of Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, Glebe
Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW: Burdekin Papers ML MSS 147; manuscripts catalogue
Society of Australian Genealogists: Rookwood Index
State Records of NSW: Colonial Secretary’s papers re Land